Building on original work done by Dr. Stephen J. Blank, we have applied non-linear search methods - both direct-search and gradient based methods - to the optimization of antenna arrays. Specifically, we have focused on using a novel algorithm termed Empirical Optimization to develop methods to optimize an array in a specific environment.


EmpopTM is an application for the optimum synthesis of antenna arrays accounting for the effects of mutual coupling and scattering between the elements of the array and the nearby environment. It can also be used for the analysis of an array in a specified environment. The empirical optimization method employed by EmpopTM can find both the optimum set of array element locations (non-uniform spacing) as well as the optimum set of element excitations. This provides added degrees of freedom in achieving optimum array performance and in compensating for coupling effects, as compared to traditional analytical design methods. Non-uniform spacing offers special advantages in suppressing grating lobes in thinned arrays and in wide angle scan and broad frequency bandwidth array operation.


  • Linear and Planar Array Optimization
  • Optimum pattern synthesis, i.e. extraction of element excitations used to create a specified array pattern, based on the physical array dimensions
  • Optimum synthesis to minimize sidelobe levels
  • Optimum synthesis to minimize the power in the sidelobes
  • Optimum synthesis of sum/diff patterns
  • Optimization of complex valued element excitations and/or spacing
  • Optimization can incorporate measured 'in-situ' element pattern data
  • Optimization can incorporate element pattern data provided by advanced computational software such as NEC.

EmpOpTM accounts for coupling between the elements of the array and nearby structure by using either measured or calculated element pattern data. The calculated element pattern data is obtained either by the induced emf method or by method of moments, e.g.,NEC.

Platform Support:

  • 32 Bit Linux
  • 64 Bit Linux
  • Mac OSX 10.4

EmpOpTM README file.